- Product highlight
- Brainpower tip
- Time tip
- Finance tip
- Security tip
- Health tip/Fitness tip
- Thought for the day
1. Product Highlight
Immersion and Master a Language|
No habla Espanol? Ne parlez-vous Francais?
Sprechen kein Duetch? Non parlo Italiano? In today's global world,
Americans are increasingly in need of communicating with people who
don't speak English.|
While there's no help when this problem arises
with doctors, lawyers, and members of Congress, there is help when
it arises with people who speak Spanish, French, German, or Italian.
If you haven't learned one of these languages yet
but are still finding yourself groping for the right words or
phrases when dealing with these non-English speakers, why are you in
For most of us, the problem harkens back to
high school. We remember those endless drills that often left us
feeling lost and, at the end of the semester, left us with hardly
any new language skill to show for it. So when faced with the
prospect of taking a language course, we tend to grimace and say no.
It doesn't have to be that way. While you're learning, you can translate Spanish immediately
Click here to see the
(Page edited in 2009 to remove outdated
information and broken links).
2. Brainpower tip
How's your BS detector? If you haven't tuned it up for
awhile, now might be a good time to do that. After all, we have a
Presidential election next year. Well, OK. It's a
pseudo-election with only one party (Demopublicans), and will predictably result in the same pattern of overtax, overspend,
and over-regulate we've always had. But that's fodder for a whole different article.|
This article is about BS. What many people don't realize
is that BS is potent enough to neutralize the highest of IQs. We're going to
look at how it does that and how you can avoid being neutralized, yourself.
See the pattern
The following joke illustrates the downward spiral that
is common when bullsh-- is being spread:
Some old cattlemen were bragging about some of the
long cattle drives they had been involved in during their lives. Each
tale bettered the others until finally came the best of them all.
One old timer bragged, "Well, I took part in a
drive that took 400 head right from Texas to London, England!"
There was a brief silence before one of the others
asked, "How did you get across the Atlantic?"
Quick as lightning came the reply, "We didn't go
When someone first starts spreading bullsh--, the
original assertion may seem plausible. Then comes a challenge and more bullsh-- to defend the
assertion. This continues, as that
person has to pile it higher and deeper to defend the original
misconception. Eventually, this reaches a farcical level and all hope is
This pattern of piling it higher and deeper to defend
an incorrect position is a behavior pattern that behavioral scientists call "justification."
A good book to read on this topic is
Made (but not by me): Why We Justify Foolish Beliefs, Bad Decisions, and
A sign that someone is engaging in justification (and
thereby conceding to being wrong) is that person becomes
argumentative when confronted with facts that don't fit his/her assertion. That
is, s/he keeps arguing (lamely) once the assertion is proven wrong. When
goal is to "be right" no matter how wrong the assertion is,
this behavior emerges.
It's ironic that this behavior merely proves the point
in an attempt not to. That point being, of course, that the original
assertion is wrong. You may have heard the expression, "You are really
reaching." It's in reference to this behavior. If the assertion were valid,
the person supporting it would not need to resort to fuzzy logic, invalid
data, irrelevant facts, irrelevant arguments, or other desperate "proof."
People who know their assertion was wrong but fear
admitting that will keep piling on the bullsh-- in an attempt to "be right"
by being even more wrong than before. They often try to shift the
discussion so that they can claim "victory" on a side issue and parlay that
into "being right" about the original issue.
For them, it's not about respecting the other person
or the truth. It's all about finding some way to "win" the losing argument
they started. The more they do this, the more convinced they make
themselves that they are "right." Now that they have so much psychologically
invested in the string of bullsh--, they feel obliged to spew more of the
same and dig themselves in even deeper.
Why they do it
The idea of cutting their losses and emerging with an
enhanced intellect doesn't even occur to them. The idea that they actually
win by being intellectually honest doesn't occur them.
What drives them is fear. They are afraid of "being
wrong," as though life will end if they have to admit they aren't
all-knowing and can't make mistakes. This unrealistic worldview is a
self-imposed set of mental handcuffs.
rather be wrong than simply acknowledge that nobody expects them to know
everything or be right all the time. This attitude prevents any real
discussion on the issue this person is pushing. And it prevents that person
from understanding what is really going on.
To paraphrase a line that is circulating at this time,
"Feeling right doesn't make you right." Actually, it tends to make you
wrong, due to the effects of the justification process. If you let those
effects gain momentum, you will be wrong more often that you will be right.
On any issue.
Sorting it out
Suppose you are about to walk out into a road. The act itself is not
stupid. If you notice cars coming in both
directions, what should you do?
You would probably agree that the smart thing to do is step back, and, based on new
information, decide the course you were on was wrong. But what if "being
wrong" is unthinkable to you? Will you insist on pushing forward even though
doing so makes no sense?
A person who insists on "being right" refuses to
accept new information that doesn't support the original assertion. We can see the stupidity of this behavior when
it's physical, as in stepping out into traffic. But it is so hard to see it
when stepping out intellectually. That's why it's easy to push forward and
Most people just aren't very good at sorting fact from
fiction. So, don't feel bad if you mistakenly see a bit of fiction as fact.
This happens all the time. It doesn't make you a lesser person when you do
this. It does make you a lesser person if you refuse to change course, and
then compound the original error by insisting it's correct in the face of
overwhelming evidence it's not.
Self-examination rarely leads to the emergence of truth
on this issue, because if you're in this position truth is not your
goal--being right is. And so it's nigh impossible for you to do a correct
evaluation. Some people go to a therapist to work this out. Most people just
pat themselves on the back and stay in this alternate world they've created.
I suggest reading on the subject and comparing what you say and do
throughout the day to what you're learning.
are some books I recommend.
If you really want to make
rapid progress in this area, this book would be the best one to start with:
Herbert Fingarette (Paperback
- Jan 15, 2000).
Wisely choose your information sources
To avoid being programmed
with disinformation, avoid disinformation sources such as newspapers and
television. These sources rarely get their facts right, and are more
concerned with making the news rather than reporting it.
Good sources of information
include the following:
- Professional and trade
publications. If you want to know something in a particular area, look
at what the people who live in that sphere are reading. They rely on
these publications to do their jobs, and are quick to correct editorial
articles. Look for the author's credentials. Why is this person
qualified to write this article?
- Authoritative books.
Again, look at the author's credentials. But also look at the backnotes,
footnotes, bibliography, and so forth to see if this author is drawing
on established research or just making things up.
Another source of
information is the Internet. Unfortunately, too many people forget the
axiom, "You can't believe everything you read." So when they encounter some
Website that bolsters the wrong view they are so desperate to support, they
automatically toss aside all tools of information filtering and give that site a
credence it does not deserve.
For too many people, the
Web has become a forum for legitimizing bullsh--. People who believe what
they want to believe are empowering bullsh-- artists to spread their nonsense
Conspiracy theory Websites
abound, as do sites selling concoctions of dubious value for weight loss and
whatever else people are seeking a quick fix for. Fortunately, these sites
nearly always bear telltale marks of bearing false information. Look for
these red flags:
- Spelling errors. Why:
People who read quality works naturally learn spelling by osmosis.
People who read garbage or read very little in the way of real
literature don't "pick up" how words
are spelled. Thus, an abundance of spelling errors is evidence of mental
malnutrition. Can you really expect a person who fails to grasp the
proper spelling of common words to somehow grasp more complex matters?
- Punctuation errors.
Why: Partially for the same reason as the previous point. The most common punctuation error is the misplaced
comma. An example is misusing the comma to indicate where a person
pause when speaking." This is akin to using an automobile tire as a
dinner plate--that's not what a comma does. It's ridiculous to think
that someone who hasn't yet been able to figure out how to use a comma
can self-study into expertise superior to that of people who have spent
their entire lives training and working in a given discipline.
- Grammatical errors.
Why: Partially for the same reason as the previous point. But also, learning grammar
requires learning the logic of our language. People who can't write in a
grammatically correct way also unable to correctly understand what they read,
because the meaning is carried out in the syntax and other grammatical
Of course, they don't know this. They frequently read what's not there,
because they lack the grammatical logic skills to understand what the
author meant. Where grammatical errors are rife, don't bother reading
- Double spaces. Why: If
you look at any book or magazine since the US Civil War (and back even
further than that), you will notice that there is only one space between
sentences. This has been the typographical standard since before any of
our grandparents were born,
and a person who hasn't noticed this either isn't very observant or
hasn't read much that's of any substance. How much credibility should
such a person have?
- Amateur site construction.
Why: People whose arguments lack substance try to make up for it in
other ways. We all know people who shout, rather than persuade, to get
their way. The same thing happens on many sites that have little or no
substance. They'll use a dazzling array of colors, underlines, exclamation points,
large fonts, and other distractions under the assumption this will make
up for the lack of substance in their arguments, their lack of facts, how much they have stretched
the truth, or the false information they have introduced.
- Wrong colors. Why: Light
text on a dark background is the opposite of what well-read people are
accustomed to. Low contrast between colors is common on disinformation
sites, also. If someone can't understand this simple idea of legibility,
what does that say about that person's ability to digest a complex
- Large blocks of
uninterrupted text. Why: People who read much in the way of authoritative materials simply do
not write this way. It is foreign to their experience. This kind of
cluttered expression also shows a cluttered process of information
assessment and analysis. It's basically shouting, "I am ignorant!"
- Long, run-on
sentences: Why: This is an example of poor composition. This shows that
the author doesn't have the ability to properly formulate and assemble
ideas. When you see this, you know this person also cannot analyze
information (same skill set required).
- Style inconsistencies.
Why: This shows the author either doesn't notice details or doesn't care
about them. And as we know, the devil is in the details.
- Lack of authoritative
references. Why: What are you getting? Probably just the opinion of
someone who hasn't reviewed the literature. This isn't always the case.
The author, for example, may be a recognized expert in the field being
- Uncredentialed author
claiming to be a subject matter expert. Why: If the author doesn't have any training, certifications,
degrees, significant experience, etc, relevant to the subject, do you really want to believe this
person rather than the people who do have those creds? A classic counterpoint to this is to argue that Galileo or some
other historic figure was considered wrong by the "experts," so creds don't
matter. That argument ignores the fact that the circumstances were
entirely different, and apples to oranges comparisons are without merit. Don't fall for
the "I'm no expert, which makes me more expert than the experts"
argument. When a person makes this logic-defying argument, s/he is a
mere BS artist.
- Irrelevant claims of
expertise. Why: After being confronted enough times with the fact that they
don't have any expertise in their area of bullsh--, the practiced
bulls-- artist will inflate a few claims about his/her intelligence,
irrelevant training, and irrelevant experience. Don't buy it. When this occurs, you know you
have a desperate liar on your hands. Note: One of the most common
examples would be the diet books authored by medical doctors. Medical
doctors get about zero training in nutrition. I have yet to see an
MD-authored nutrition book that isn't full of BS. If one exists, it's
not because the doctor learned anything relevant in medical school.
Similarly, I haven't seen such a book authored by an auto mechanic.
Either person may be stellar in his/her field.
- One-sided view. Why:
When all of the "evidence" and "arguments" seem to justify a
given viewpoint, beware. Any whacko can
close his/her eyes to all facts that don't support his/her view and
accept only those that do. In the case of conspiracy sites, that is
exactly what is going on. This is how whackos try to show how smart or
knowledgeable they are, and they believe their own weak, fact-defying
arguments. What they are showing to the astute, informed observer is
merely that they are bullheaded and mired in bullsh--.
- Fuzzy photos. Why:
Isn't it amazing how the UFO photos and other "startling evidence"
never in focus? How are you supposed to draw reliable conclusions from
something that is so open to interpretation? Why is it so impossible to
get a clear photo?
- Fuzzy logic. Why: This
is rampant among the bullsh-- artists. They frequently posit cause and
effect relationships that don't exist, A-B arguments that don't
necessarily follow, and "subset applied to set" arguments that violate
the basic rules of reasoning. This is how they assemble their fantasy world.
surface reading of their claims can seem believable to people who have
out of tune BS detectors.
- Fuzzy facts. Why: The
authors of these sites take an old trick from print hucksterism. They
cherry pick the data they want to support whatever view they're
espousing. Try this experiment. Flip a coin 20 times, and note every
time it comes up heads. Does ignoring the times it comes up tails prove
that it's a two-headed coin?
I'd like to polish off this article by
discussing one of the most staggeringly transparent examples of absurdity and bullsh--
floating around today. That would be the WTC "official story isn't true"
line of bullsh--. The red flags mentioned earlier abound on the sites that
peddle it. A central theme is that "the fires weren't hot enough to melt
steel and therefore the planes weren't the cause of the collapse." Let's
briefly debunk that grossly incorrect conclusion, which is based on an
I didn't need a BS detector personally for this one,
because I saw the second event in real time. If you look closely enough at
the wall erected at the edge of ground zero, you will see my name written
there. A minor point, but still....|
conspiracy theory is a classic case of
delusion, fact-shifting, and bullsh--. A person with good fact assessment
abilities would not fall prey to this.
is one photo of a WTC impact. Notice the height of that fireball as it
emerges. What is that, 20 stories? Think of how large that is in all three
dimensions and how much heat there must be.
The conspiracy sites tell you the melting point of
steel and then go into a bizarre analysis of conditions during the WTC fires
(getting many facts wrong in the process).
What they overlook is that this whole line of bullsh-- is irrelevant. It is not necessary to melt steel to
reduce its strength or cause a steel structure to fail. You learn this in
Mechanical Physics 101. Oh, and that's another thing--these folks
demonstrate a profound ignorance of physics yet claim "the official
story defies the laws of physics."|
They also ignore the fact that rivets aren't melted during
construction. They are merely heated. Anyone who has worked in steel
construction, or even merely observed it, would know this. So this
line of bullsh-- is another way these people demonstrate they are ignorant
about the very subject they are expounding upon.
These conspiracy folks conveniently ignore the fact that the
engineering forensics were conducted not by "the government" but by private
individuals from the relevant fields. These are people who did the hard work
- Getting an advanced degree in their field (e.g., by graduating from an
advanced engineering program)
- Studying for and passing a Professional
Engineer License exam (very difficult to pass)
- Maintaining their P.E. through continued education
- Spending their career engaged in applying their expertise to projects in
their field of expertise.
- Actually designing and building the kinds of
complex multimillion dollar structures being discussed, or the
components of same.
- Conducting ongoing activity related to upgrades,
retrofits, and other technical activities related to these buildings.
- Working as a volunteer in the technical standards
committees, which involves reaching consensus so those standards can be
written or updated, then sent out for comment by others in the industry
before being finalized and approved.
Yet, we are supposed to believe that a person who
hasn't done any of this--who has little or no training or experience in those fields--has expertise
superior to that of a person who has
spent a lifetime learning and doing in those fields.
We can either accept that line of "thinking" (or lack thereof), or notice
that our bullsh-- detectors are ringing off the hook.
The government did it?
What strikes me as particularly hilarious is these
folks claim the same government that has honed incompetence to a fine art
somehow managed to pull off secretly hiding bombs inside the WTC and timing
the detonations to coincide with the attacks on that September morning while
also paying $900 for toilet seats.
Yeah, and they placed those bombs at exactly the
height where the planes entered, thus explaining how those massive fireballs
were created by bombs planted by our own people rather than by jets laden
with high octane jet fuel hitting the buildings at 300 MPH+.
This is a government that is so mired in incompetence
that it is 180 times as large as it was a century ago for a nation
whose population has less than tripled in that time. Meanwhile in the
private sector, one person now does a job that it took 10 or 20 people to do
a century ago. Yet, we're supposed to believe that these same morons who
can't get a job done right while using 20 times the necessary manpower
somehow had the competence to blow up two towers without leaving a trace.
Here's a brief history of incompetence. First, there
was government. Then, there was more government. End of story.
Back to the steel thing. Just how hot does it need to
be before steel fails? Not very. A case in point is the recent highway
connector collapse on the Oakland Expressway. A gasoline tanker lost 8,000
gallons of fuel on a highway connector in Oakland, CA and the structure
subsequently collapsed. You can read about it here:
Yet, we are supposed to believe that the WTC towers,
which were never designed to support vehicular traffic, did not collapse due
to being doused with far more fuel--enough to produce 20 story fireballs--after
being hit by an enormously heavy jet traveling at over 300 MPH.
We are further supposed to believe that the steel
girders of those towers should have been able to support several tons of
aircraft while their rivets were heated well beyond the temperature needed
to install those rivets.
It amazes me is that people can keep a straight face
while peddling this particularly inane line of bullsh--.
However, the self-delusion is just a natural result from the kinds of
behaviors discussed in the Mistakes Were Made book referenced above.
When people decide that defending their incorrectness is more important than
having their eyes open to the obvious, this is the kind of thing you get.
Nevermind the proverbial elephant in the living room.
The classic response to people who aren't deluded and
refuse to take the trip into fantasy land is to pile on even more bullsh--.
When that fails, the deluded resort to vitriol and ad hominem attacks.
Rather than admit they started off on the wrong path, they will continue
blundering forever down it, descending deeper and deeper into the cesspool
of bullsh-- until they can't see the light of day.
We all take the wrong path at times. No shame there.
Just make sure you keep your eyes open and that you don't let BS neutralize
3. Time Tip
4. Finance tip
Do you clip coupons to save money? If so, this
practice is probably costing you money. Yes, you may see several dollars
taken off your total at checkout, but don't fall into the trap of
interpreting this to mean you actually saved money. Most people lose
money with coupons.|
Here are some factors to
- Coupons are designed to entice you to buy
something you normally would not buy. You aren't saving money by
getting 30 cents off a $5 purchase you would not have otherwise
- I have yet to see a food item coupon that
isn't for junk food. Assuming you care about your health, healthcare
costs, and the suffering caused by disease, such coupons are no
- The companies that started the coupon method
of promotion are stuck in it. This includes cereal companies (which
make sugary, hydrogenated oil products so don't pity them) and many
others. As we all know, money does not grow on trees (well, OK,
Congress doesn't know this). This means that the cost of those
coupons must be covered by corresponding price increases.
Consequently, there is an artificial cost added to the cost of each
product. The actual cost of a 30 cent coupon is probably a couple of
dollars when all is said and done. If coupons were eliminated, costs
would drop far more than the face value of the coupons. This means
if you participate in the coupon game, you are helping jack up
everyone's prices including your own. This is a classic "prisoner's
dilemma" situation. Do you make the ethical choice, or do you go for
the choice that benefits you only a little bit?
Now, there is a caveat here. One type of coupon is
worth using. That would be a general promotion coupon issued by the
merchant. These take the form of, "Spend $100 or more, and get 10% off."
Merchants issue these for any of several reasons, and the coupons have a
very low cost of administration. The trap here is you'll think up
"needs" to justify the $100 so you can save the 10%. The way out of that
trap is to make a list of things you need. If the total doesn't meet the
minimum on the coupon, then shred the coupon.
Finally, consider that the labor cost of cutting
coupons is high. First, you have to obtain a coupon source. This is
traditionally, the newspaper--which is full of highly-biased articles
(consider them to be brain toxins). Next, you have to wade through and
read coupons to select the ones you want. Then you have to organize your
coupons and search for the items that correspond to them.
Go ahead and time yourself, to see how much you are earning per hour in
the whole product coupon process. Add up the coupons for items you would
buy anyhow and subtract the dollar cost of items that you would not
normally buy. Most people discover they are paying for the privilege of
using coupons. Do you pay your employer to let you work?
How much time do you spend? An hour a week? What
service(s) do you pay for that you could do yourself? Time has
I've been asked to expand on the energy savings
discussion of a previous eNL. I hear you, and will address that request
in a future edition.
5. Security tip
I read recently that the Citadel is finally putting locks on the doors of
it male dormitories. Doesn't this seem like something they should have
done a long time ago? Like for sure on September 12, 2001? Or perhaps in
1993 when the WTC was first bombed? Or perhaps decades earlier?|
smug we are, even with the constant threats around us. When is the last
time you did a security evaluation for yourself? Most people have never
done one. One way to do it is to "trace out" the path you travel each
Here are some questions to help you along the way:
- Do you look before walking out your front door to get the paper
in the morning? Two possible problems, here. First, you are getting
the paper and that means you are exposing your mind to garbage.
Second, how do you know someone isn't lurking just outside your
- If you have an attached garage, do you back out with your window
down or door unlocked? The problem here is someone can wait, after
having determined that you leave at the same time every day.
- If you walk to your car, do you peer into the backseat before
opening the door? The possible danger is someone is in your
backseat. Could be under your car or behind a tree, too. Have your
keys ready and rehearse (at least mentally, but preferably as a
physical simulation) how to counter an assault.
- If you take mass transit, are you advertising that you are worth
mugging? That fancy watch or those fancy rings may advertise to
other people that you think you are successful. To a mugger, it
advertises that you have something he wants. Dress down. Check your
accessories. Also, if you have a fancy gizmo (e.g., Blackberry,
PocketPC), untether yourself. This not only good for your mental
health but it allows you to stay alert while not also giving out
strong "mug me" clues.
- At your office (or other place of employment), do you know where
the fire extinguishers are? Fire exits? Stairwells? Do you know the
emergency number? Have you looked over you work area to determine
what weapons are there, and which are the best for your self
defense? Most workplaces don't allow you to carry a firearm, so look
for something else--such as a heavy stapler or other item you can
quickly and lethally brandish. If a coworker goes Postal, how will
you handle that so you can take him down?
- Do you take the same route to work each day? Try varying this
route, at least on a random basis. Maybe you ride the same bus
route, drive the same roads, take the same subway route. Maybe you
have such a long commute that the very idea of an alternate route
that will take even longer is nuts. OK, then, this tip won't work
- Analyze your route for dangers. This helps you stay alert, and
it may just save your life.
- At home, review every point of entry. Are these secure? If you
lost your keys, what might you do to get in? Imagine you are outside
and your child is inside and the place is burning.
- Take a very close look at your windows. The typical window is
installed poorly, with a minimum of materials and a maximum of
sloppy workmanship. One problem this creates is an energy leak.
Another problem, however, is an easily broached window. If your home
has the original windows, there is almost no chance they are either
safe or energy-efficient. Simply replacing with an energy-efficient
window doesn't solve the problem--the key is competent installation
and that means hiring a qualified installer rather than Billy Bob's
Cutrate Mexican Laborer Window Shop to install them.
- At home, review every method of defense. Note that calling 911
is not a method of defense--it's a method of reporting. The courts
have repeatedly ruled that the police are not under an obligation to
protect private citizens. That is your job.
- Check all of your firearms, not just the main one closest
to where you sleep. Are these ready for you to use in an emergency?
Are they secure against unauthorized use, for example by a child? If
there are children in your home, have you taught them "don't touch"
in regard to firearms (if you are unfamiliar with this principle, a
formal program of this goes back for more than 100 years and you can
find it by searching online for "Eddie Eagle."? Do you check your
firearms daily to ensure kids have not been violating this rule?
- Check your grounds for footprints. Burglars will often check out
a place before robbing it, by visiting it in person and checking
various things. They will look for trip wires, alarm switches,
location of the phone line, type of window locks, and so forth. They
may do this at night, or they may do so in broad daylight when
nobody is at home (and they might not even bother to dress up as a
- Check your vegetation, especially if you have a single-family
residence. Builders are noted for "landscaping" with plants placed
far too close to the building. As the plants grow, they occlude
entryways and facilitate criminal entry. The best approach is to
remove these plants and redo the landscaping so it is at least
somewhat intelligently planned. An interim, but ultimately futile,
measure is to trim these back.
- Pay attention to vehicular traffic in your area. If you see the
same car driving slowly by, it could just be some IRS field agent
collecting information to support false allegations for a report
designed to destroy an innocent person. You can't do anything about
that, other than get the license number and file a complaint. But it
could be some creep who is casing the area.
These are just a few points to consider. The best
thing you can do is divide your daily path into discrete components
(e.g., morning time at home, commute to work, work location, commute
home, evening at home, going out to dinner, etc.) and analyze each one
for safety and security issues. You may be surprised at what a little
attention and thought can uncover.
The most common security breaches that lead to
tragic consequences are not things that only a security expert would
think of. They are common-sense things that people overlook due to
apathy, ignorance, or negligence. I don't mean to use those words in a
pejorative sense--they just happen to describe the situation very well
when obvious dangers go unnoticed.
6. Health tip/Fitness tips
- Humphrey Bogart was related to Princess Diana.
They were 7th cousins. Amazingly, no evidence has emerged that they were
related to Bill Clinton.
We don't run ads in our newsletter. We do get
inquiries from advertisers, all the time. To keep this eNL coming, go to
www.mindconnection.com and do your
shopping from there (as appropriate).
Please forward this eNL to others.
8. Thought for the Day
How people perceive you as a person depends more on
how you treat them than on anything you can possibly say about yourself.|
Wishing you the best,
The views expressed in this e-newsletter are generally not shared by criminals, zombies, or brainwashed individuals.
Except where noted, this e-newsletter is entirely the work of Mark Lamendola. Anything presented as fact can be independently verified. Often, sources are given; but where not given, they are readily available to anyone who makes the effort.
Mark provides information from either research or his own areas of established expertise. Sometimes, what appears to be a personal opinion is the only possibility when applying sound logic--reason it out before judging! (That said, some personal opinions do appear on occasion).
The purpose of this publication is to inform and empower its readers (and save you money!).
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